The Earth Summit in 1992 recognized capacity building as one of the means of implementation for its action agenda for sustainable development, Agenda 21, and gave particular focus to national mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity building in developing countries. Importance was given to defining country needs and priorities in sustainable development through an ongoing participatory process and, in so doing, to strengthening human resource and institutional capabilities. Developing the capacity of institutions is a key objective of most international development cooperation activities and essential for achieving sustainable development outcomes and lasting impact. One of the targets under Sustainable Development Goal 17 is to enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-development in developing countries, in support of national plans to implement all the SDGs. This includes North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation.Results-oriented capacity development must be demand-driven, building upon strengths and weaknesses in the current structure, and based upon ownership by the stakeholders.Through many years of advising a variety of clients, PEM has become highly skilled in identifying drivers of transformational change, governance analysis, and institutional and functional analysis. Our expertise ranges from organisational and human resource development, to change management, and strategic and financial planning.